**The list below shows the lab experiments performed in my course.**

**Most of the lab experiments are open ended where the students are given an objective and a list of equipment. Students design their own procedure, data gathering and data analysis.**

**The allotted time given is for conducting the experiment and recording the**

**pertinent data. The students perform the data analysis and complete the lab **

**report at home. A ****lab report ****is required for most experiments.**

**We hold post-lab discussions after I have graded their lab notebooks.**

**1. Vector Addition**

**Objective: ****To compare the experimental value of a resultant of several vectors to the values obtained through graphical and analytical methods.**

**Equipment: ****A force table set**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 45 min**

**2. Motion in One-Dimension**

**Objective: ****To analyze the motion of objects moving at constant speed and at uniform accelerated motion. Data should be collected to produce graphs of ***x ***versus ***t***, ***v ***versus ***t ***and ***a ***versus ***t*** for each object. **

**Perform graphical analysis from the slopes and/or areas under the curves as appropriate. Mark your work clearly on every graph.**

**Equipment:**** A video camera to record the motion of an object at constant velocity and an object in accelerated motion. **

**LoggerPro3.6 to perform video analysis.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 90 min**

**3. Projectile Motion**

**Objectives:**** To determine the initial velocity of a projectile and the angle at which the maximum range can be attained.**

**Equipment: ****A projectile launcher and a meterstick.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**4. Atwood's Machine: Newton's Second Law**

**Objectives:**** To determine the acceleration of a system and the tension in the string.**

**Equipment:**** Modified Atwood's machine: dynamics cart and track, meterstick, stopwatch or photogate and a set of masses.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**5. Frictional Forces**

**Objectives: ****Determination of static and kinetic coefficients of friction using two different methods.**

**Equipment:**** Rectangular blocks of different materials (felt and wood), spring scale, wooden board that can be used as an inclined plane, protractor.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**6. Conservation of Mechanical Energy**

**Objective: ****To determine the work due to non-conservative forces in the case of a cart moving up and down an inclined plane by two different methods.**

**Equipment:**** Wooden board, cart, pulley, a set of masses, meterstick and stopwatch or photogate.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**7. Conservation of Linear Momentum**

**Objectives: ****To determine the velocity of each glider before and after a collision.**

**Equipment:**** Air track set.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**8. Centripetal Force**

**Objectives: ****To determine the velocity of a flying toy and the tension in the string.**

**Equipment: ****Holy Cow or Flying Pig, a meterstick and a triple-beam balance**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 30 min**

**9. Potential Energy Investigation: Spring and Gravitational.**

**Objectives:**** To determine the spring constant of the spring, and evaluate the extent to which the change in gravitational potential energy of the mass is equal to the change in the spring potential energy.**

**Equipment: ****Hooke's law apparatus, a set of masses and a meterstick.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**10. Kepler's Laws**

**Objectives:**** To plot a planetary orbit and apply Kepler's Laws**

**Equipment: ****Worksheet with planetary data and polar graph paper.**

**Type of Lab: Teacher directed.**

**Allotted time: None in class, this lab exercise is given as a homework assignment.**

**11. Archimedes' Principle**

**Objectives: ****To determine the density of two unknown materials.**

**Equipment: ****Triple- beam balance, overflow can, beaker, various metal objects and string**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 30 min**

**12. Torricelli's Theorem**

**Objectives:**** To determine the exit velocity of a liquid and to investigate the range attained with holes at varying heights.**

**Equipment:**** Clear plastic bottle with three holes at various heights, plastic container, water and meterstick.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**13. Coefficient of Linear Expansion**

**Objectives: ****To determine the coefficient of linear expansion of two metal rods.**

**Equipment: ****Linear expansion apparatus.**

**Type of Lab: Teacher directed**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**14. The Ideal Gas Law**

**Objectives: ****To experimentally verify Boyle's and Charles' Laws.**

**Equipment: ****Boyle's law apparatus, a set of masses, thermometer, heating plate **

**and ice.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**15. Efficiency**

**Objective****: To determine the efficiency of a hair dryer.**

**Equipment:**** T-shirt, water, bucket, mass balance, hair dryer of known power output.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**Hint: Students must use the fact that it takes 2260 J of heat energy to vaporize one gram of water.**

**16. Static Electricity Investigation**

**Objectives: ****To make qualitative observations of the behavior of an electroscope when it is charged by conduction and by induction**

**Equipment: ****Electroscope and electrostatic materials set**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 30 min**

**17. Coulomb's Law**

**Objectives: ****To determine the charge on two spherical polystyrene balls**

**Equipment: ****Polystyrene balls, string, stand and a meterstick.**

**Type of Lab: Open-ended**

**Allotted time: 20 min**

**18. Equipotential Lines and Electric Fields**

**Objectives: ****To map both the potentials and the electric fields around a system **

**of two-dimensional charged conductors.**

**Equipment: ****Field mapper kit**

**Type of Lab: Teacher directed**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**19. Series and Parallel Circuits**

**Objectives: ****To investigate the behavior of resistors in series, parallel and **

**series-parallel circuits.**

**The lab should include measurements of voltage and current.**

**Equipment: ****Circuit board set, voltmeter, ammeter and batteries**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 90 min**

**20. Magnetic Field Investigation**

**Objectives: ****To map the magnetic field around a bar magnet and to determine **

**the strength of the magnetic field**

**Equipment: ****Bar magnet, compasses, meterstick and protractor**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 30 min**

**211. Electromagnetic Induction**

**Objectives: ****To qualitatively examine the effects of changing magnetic field by observing currents induced in a solenoid and to determine whether your observations agree with the theory of electromagnetic induction and Lenz' Law.**

**Equipment: ****Power supply, galvanometer, bar magnet and solenoid**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 30 min**

**22. Standing Waves in a String**

**Objectives:**** To determine the experimental value of the frequency.**

**Equipment:**** Electric string vibrator, string, pulley with rod support, meterstick **

**and set of masses**

**Type of Lab: Teacher directed**

**Allotted time: 90 min**

**23. Interference**

**Objectives:**** To determine the wavelength of two sources of light by using a double-slit and a diffraction grating of known spacing.**

**Equipment:**** He-Ne Laser, slits and meterstick**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**24. Index of Refraction**

**Objectives: ****To determine the index of refraction of an acrylic block**

**Equipment:**** Optics bench, ray table, light source and acrylic block**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 30 min**

**25. Mirrors and Lenses**

**Objectives: ****This lab is divided into two sections:**

**1. Using a concave mirror, determine two locations where a magnified image can **

**be formed.**

**2. Determine the focal length of a converging lens directly and the focal length of **

**a diverging lens by combining it with a converging lens.**

**Equipment: ****Optics bench, set of lenses and mirrors, light source**

**Type of Lab: Open ended**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**26. Photoelectric Effect**

**Objectives: ****To calculate the value of Planck's constant.**

**Equipment: ****LED Color strip, 9V battery, voltmeter, meter stick, diffraction grating **

**of known slit spacing**

**Type of Lab: Teacher directed**

**Allotted time: 50 min**

**27. Spectroscopy**

**Objectives: ****To make qualitative observations of the different spectra of a variety **

**of light sources.**

**Equipment: ****Spectroscope and various sources of light**

**Type of Lab: Teacher directed**

**Allotted time: 30 min**